The four key elements of PST are problem identification, generating alternatives, decision making, implementing solutions, reviewing outcomes and revising steps where needed. Problem orientation must also be addressed in addition to these steps, and the efficacy of PST increases when problem orientation is addressed in addition to the other steps25,26. People who have a substance or alcohol use disorder may often struggle with negative feelings or thoughts that make recovery more difficult. Because CBT focuses on identifying what is a halfway house? what to expect in halfway housing and replacing such thought patterns with more adaptive ones, it can help improve a person’s outlook and support skills that support long-term recovery. When people are struggling with difficult situations, life stress, trauma, anxiety, depression, or other problems, they sometimes turn to substance or alcohol use as a way to manage. If someone is at the point where they need professional treatment for their addiction, chances are they are using alcohol or drugs as their main means of coping with problems.

Meta-analytic data also suggest that when choosing between medication management and a more comprehensive adjunct to pharmacotherapy, the more comprehensive intervention is preferred. Finally, summary data on individual drugs beyond alcohol, later follow-up outcomes, and secondary measures of psychosocial functioning are quite sparse. In the present narrative review, we offer an overview of CBT efficacy for adult AOD and consider some key variations in application as well as contextual (ie, moderators) or mechanistic (ie, mediators) factors related to intervention effectiveness. Specifically, we will examine what might be considered “classical” or “traditional” applications based on Marlatt and Gordon’s17 seminal work but will also consider some integrative applications such as CBT in combination with MI, CM, and pharmacotherapy. Finally, we will examine moderating and mediating factors that have been observed in studies of intervention efficacy. As such, we provide a summary of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, but some landmark trials are also described.

Several behavioural strategies are reported to be effective in the management of factors leading to addiction or substance use, such as anxiety, craving, skill deficits2,7. The first step in planning a cognitive behavioural treatment program is to carry out a functional analysis to identify maintaining antecedents and set treatments targets, select interventions. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates that insurance providers must cover treatment for mental health and substance use treatment.10 This means that your insurance plan is required to cover at least a portion of your care. The ACA applies to all insurance companies, including employer-sponsored coverage, Medicaid and Medicare, and marketplace insurance. Many 60 to 90 day rehabilitation programs include CBT to provide people with immediate coping techniques.

  1. Gradually he began to drink before meetings or interactions (maladaptive coping and negative reinforcement).
  2. Skills building can be broadly conceptualized as targeting interpersonal, emotion regulation, and organizational/problem-solving deficits.
  3. Symptoms of substance dependence reflect more internal consequences of use such as physical withdrawal upon discontinuation of a substance and difficulty with cutting down or controlling use of a substance.
  4. Relapse prevention programmes addressing not just the addictive behaviour, but also factors that contribute to it, thereby decreasing the probability of relapse.
  5. To our knowledge, this is the first targeted meta-analysis of CBT in combination with pharmacotherapy for adults with AUD and other SUDs to summarize the data in a manner relevant to clinical practice guidelines.

Family members are counselled so as identify potential risk factors for relapse, such as emotional and behavioural changes. Dealing effectively with interpersonal problems in the family, and improving communication and avoiding conflicts have been effectively employed in the Indian context16,17. Long story short—cognitive behavioral therapy works well for some, but not for everyone. This is the case with all alcoholism and drug treatment approaches, because every person alcoholic narcissist alcohol and narcissistic personality disorder deals with and recovers from addiction in a different way. Once you have identified the specific set of destructive thought patterns that have allowed the cycle of addiction to develop and continue in your life, our Priory specialists will be able to teach you how to replace those dysfunctional beliefs with more positive ones. Sometimes, these negative beliefs stem from the earliest days of childhood, and are therefore very ingrained into your consciousness.

Platforms for delivering addiction interventions via technology are diverse and multiplying rapidly. In the sections below we will cover only those which (1) are explicitly or predominantly cognitive-behavioral in focus (although several include components of MI and other interventions), (2) the primary targeted outcome is alcohol or drug use, and (3) the intervention is delivered online. We include an expanded description of a computer-based CBT program developed by our research group as a possible paradigm for how CBT evolve in the future. As is the case for other evidence-based approaches, it has been challenging to move CBT into widespread clinical practice (Emmelkamp et al., 2014; Harvey & Gumport, 2015; Institute of Medicine, 2001; Kazdin & Blase, 2011). The neurobiological basis of mindfulness in substance use and craving have also been described in recent literature40.


Hester and colleagues (Hester, Delaney, & Campbell, 2011) conducted a study in which 78 non-dependent problem drinkers were randomized to either Moderation Management alone () (either delivered in-person or web-based) or Moderation Management plus online training in moderation management using the “Moderate Drinking” app (). While both groups significantly decreased the amount they drank, those assigned to the combination reported a higher percentage of days abstinent (43.9 versus 22.6%) and fewer alcohol-related problems than the group utilizing Moderation Management only. Problem solving therapy (PST) is a cognitive behavioural program that addresses interpersonal problems and other problem situations that may trigger stress and thereby increase probability of the addictive behaviour.

5. Quality of evidence

When an addicted person understands why they feel or act a certain way — and how those feelings and actions lead to substance use — they are better equipped to overcome their addiction. We’ve tried, tested, and written unbiased reviews of the alcohol tapering best online therapy programs including Talkspace, BetterHelp, and ReGain. Masoudeh Babakhanin had full access to all the data in this study and takes complete responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

1. Screening and data extraction

Oxford Treatment Center is a leading outpatient and inpatient drug and alcohol rehab in Mississippi. Our staff utilizes cognitive behavioral therapy and other treatment modalities to help people recover from substance use disorders every day. Qualitative and quantitative evidence will be summarized on this topic, providing an overview of the current body of knowledge on pornography use.

CBT for substance abuse equips an individual to overcome addiction by revealing the emotions and actions that lead to it. Although it was initially developed as a therapy for depression, later CBT has been found to be useful for other mental health problems. CBT for AOD is a well-established intervention with demonstrated efficacy, effect sizes are in the small-to-moderate range, and there is potential for tailoring given the modular format of the intervention. Future work should consider mechanisms of CBT efficacy and key conditions for dissemination and implementation with fidelity. Mindfulness, is drawn from Zen Buddhist teachings and refers to viewing things in a special way.

Skills For Managing Triggers

In other words, they believe that by taking the time to gain insight into your beliefs, you can increase your health and wellbeing simply by changing the way that you think and respond to situations. This might involve specifically targeting physiological effects like dependence and withdrawal, in collaboration with medical providers. However, once your client has achieved some distance from their use patterns, then they can develop new insights into the role their use played in their lives and use that insight to make additional changes. Often, a mix of treatment types, including group therapy, CBT, and more, is required to truly defeat addiction. Soba Recovery will work with you to develop a customized drug addiction treatment plan that will work for you.

Novel Treatment Strategies

In addition, technology offers strategies for enhancing our ability to study CBT and other interventions more systematically and more rigorously. In the sections below we elaborate on how these possibilities may accelerate development of cognitive behavioral interventions in the next 30 years. First, our results suggest that prescribing clinicians should favor CBT over usual clinical management to ensure optimal clinical outcomes for addiction, in the context of pharmacotherapy. This conclusion is based in our comparison of CBT plus pharmacotherapy vs usual care plus pharmacotherapy. Second, CBT is not superior to other evidence-based behavioral treatments for addiction, yet in the context of its superiority to usual care, our findings suggest that clinicians should favor an evidence-based behavioral therapy, CBT or otherwise, in conjunction with pharmacological treatment. Third, the add-on benefit of CBT compared with pharmacotherapy and usual care was not clearly supported and suggests that benefit of CBT as an adjunct requires further investigation.

By addressing these underlying psychological disorders, cognitive-behavioral treatment exercises treat the underlying reasons for addiction and recognize signs of relapse in the future. The study of effectiveness of motivational enhancement strategies has yielded mixed results. For example, in a large effectiveness trial of motivational enhancement therapy for Spanish-speaking patients seeking treatment for substance use, Carroll et al [50] found small advantages for this treatment relative to TAU only among those in the sample seeking treatment for alcohol problems. This finding of an advantage for motivational enhancement in alcohol and not drug using samples was consistent with prior investigations.[51] Similarly, a study conducted by Gray, McCambridge, and Strang [52] examined the effects of single-session MI delivered by youth workers for alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use among young people. Upon 3-month follow-up those who received MI reported significantly fewer days of alcohol use than those who did not receive MI; however, significant differences were not found for cigarette or cannabis use indicating that the extent of benefit of MI is more modest than that identified by efficacy research studies. Results for the improvement of retention with motivational enhancement in effectiveness studies have been more promising.[53] effectiveness research to better understand the application of CBT outside of controlled research settings.

Online therapy also provides a lot of flexibility if you have a hectic schedule. With online CBT treatment, your therapist may write back within the hour or a few times weekly. Contact your insurance provider to determine your coverage for mental health services. A co-occurring disorder can be challenging to treat because addiction can worsen mental disorders and vice versa.

Technology may provide a means for CBT interventions to circumvent the ‘implementation cliff’ in Stages 3–5 by offering a flexible, low-cost, standardized means of disseminating CBT in a range of novel settings and populations. Moreover, returning to Stage 1 to reconnect clinical applications of CBT to recent developments in cognitive science and neuroscience holds great promise for accelerating understanding of mechanisms of action. It is critical that CBT not be considered as a static intervention, but rather one that constantly evolves and is refined through the Stage model until the field achieves a maximally powerful intervention that addresses core features of the addictions. A literature search was conducted by a trained research assistant (J.W.) through July 31, 2019, as part of a broader meta-analysis project on CBT for substance use.